Glossary for detailled explanation - take your pick:
Due to the thread dimensions and tolerances stipulated in DIN 13, the following maximum screw-in length are valid:
|Sensor housings with thread Pulsotronic|
|Thread||max. screw-in length in mm|
For sensors with longer housings suitable free blind hole must be drilled.
(also: Switching Distance) Optical sensors have a maximum usable range between the device (reflective light barrier) and the standard calibrating plate. Thereby, the sensor is adjusted to the maximum sensibility.
ONLY FOR ULTRASONIC SENSORS By the help of a potentiometer, a switch or an external wire connection, the sensitivity of the sensor can be reduced. Because of this, the maximum sensing range and the aperture angle of the sound beam decreases. This possibility is especially useful for applications where mutual disturbances should be avoided without synchronising the sensors or when a reduction of the beam is needed to eliminate unwanted echos.
SensorsSensors are proximity switches that react to the presence of an object within a predefined detection range.
Series ConnectionThe number of sensors that can be connected in series connection is limited by the total voltage drop. A further limit is given by the capacity of the out put driver inside the sensor because of the fact that all no-load currents I0 are added to the rated operating current Ie. Pulsotronic cannot assume a guarantee of functionality for series connection of more than 2 sensors.
Short Time Ampacity Ik
The short time ampacity is the current Ik that is allowed temporarily for AC voltages which conduct within an indicated switch-on time Tk (ms) and repetition frequency Fk (Hz).
(also: short-circuit protection) Sensors with clocked or thermic short-circuit protection are protected against overloading of the output stage by suitable electronic switching. The release current of the short-circuit protection is higher than the rated operating current Ie.
Smallest ObjectThe "smallest object" is an object that can be barely detected due to its size. This specification can only be given for light barriers. For touch sensors, this size cannot be presented as generell value because of the fact that it serves as function for the object distance, too. For the measurement, a cupper wire with infinite length is used. A characteristic is only its diameter.
The aperture angle of the sonic cone amounts ca. 8°. It defines the 3dB limits. In the nearer surroundings of the cone, it is possible to detect objects outside of these limits. The diameter of the ultra sonic cone increases with increasing distance to the sensor. Proportionally to this, the energy density decreases.
Speed Sensing Switch
Speed sensing switches are controlling the speed at rotating machine parts. Depending on the version, the speed rotation is adjusted by a potentiometer or electronically by the help of a micro controller.
Standard Calibrating Plate Capacitive
The standard calibrating plate for capacitive sensors is equivalent to the inductive plate but is additionally grounded.
Standard Calibrating Plate Inductive
(also: measuring metal tag) A standard calibrating plate for inductive sensors is a squared plate of FE 360 (ST 37) and is used to identify the switching distances. The thickness amounts d = 1 mm and the side length a is the diameter of the registered circle of the active surface or 3 x Sn if this value exceeds the given diameter.
Standard Calibrating Plate Optical
The Kodak grey chart is indicated as standard calibrating plate for optical switches. It is a cardboard panel whose surface shows a defined reflection. The side with 90 % reflection is used for detecting switching distances of sensors and the side with 18 % reflection for detecting the grey value shift.
Strain Gauge Sensors
Strain gauges (SG) are working in regard to the effect of the change of electronic resistance because of mechanical extension and are used to detect extending deformation. SG are available as wire, film, semiconductor or rossett versions. For measurings with SG, there are mainly used bridge circuits like quater, half of full bridges.
The switching distance is the distance between standard calibrating plate and active surface of the sensor where the signal change is released. Usually, user and producer are using the term "switching distance" without exact definition in regard to catalogue values. In general, the rated switching distance Sn is given in the producer's catalogues.
The switching frequency indicates the maximum possible number of switching operations per second of a proximity switch. In regard to EN 60947-5-2, the switching frequency is detected by damping the sensor with standard measuring plates on a rotating nonconducting disc. In doing so, the surface ratio of object and open space is 1:2.
(also: output functions) Each sensor creates an electric signal change at its output while switching. Usable output functions are: normally closed, normally open, analogue, non-equivalent etc. The possible switching functions of Pulsotronic's proximity switches are shown under "Output functions and circuit diagrams" among the definitions.
Sensors can be used with different switching modes which depends on their type: DC voltage (VDC) 3-wired, DC voltage (VDC) 2-wired, AC voltage (VAC) or universal voltage (V AC/DC). The switching mode for each sensor is shown on their corresponding data sheet.
see: Operating Range